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Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy – Procedure, Advantages & Disadvantages

Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Procedure
During a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, the surgeon removes up to 90% of the stomach, reducing its size and capacity to enhance weight loss. The stomach is vertically divided into two parts, creating a small pouch shaped like a banana or a sleeve. After stapling the stomach, the surgeon removes the excess. The laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a restrictive operation, since it limits the food intake, but it does not alter the normal function of the digestive system.

The procedure is called “laparoscopic” since it is performed without the need for open surgery. The surgeon makes five to six small incisions in the abdomen that are used to pass surgical instruments, including a laparoscope camera. By doing so, surgeons increase visibility, while the laparoscopic method involves less pain, scarring and recovery time. Most of the weight loss surgeries can be performed either through laparoscopy or open surgery, but the latter involves a higher risk of infections and adhesions, since the internal scarring can cause additional complications.

Why it is performed?

Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is performed to manage obesity and stimulate weight-loss in severely obese individuals. Obesity or overweight is a medical problem that is closely associated with conditions like heart disease, hypertension, skeletal problems and diabetes. If not managed promptly, obesity can result in disability and morbidity. Sleeve gastrectomy is the choice of procedure for managing obesity when all conservative interventions fail. During sleeve gastrectomy procedure, 5-7 small incisions are made on the abdomen. Through one of these incision laparoscope (a long instrument with video camera at its tip) is introduced into the abdomen. By aid of laparoscope a large part of stomach is removed and a sleeve or tubular structure is left behind. Sleeve gastrectomy is a minimal invasive procedure and takes1-2 hours to complete.

Advantages/Benefits of Sleeve Gastrectomy surgery

Patient are expected to lose 40-70% of their excess body weight in first year of surgery
It helps to improves blood sugar and blood cholesterol levels
Assist in managing type II diabetes, hypertension , breathing difficulties, skeletal problems and coronary heart disease
Manages obesity induced depression, anxiety and obstructive sleep disorders
Improves functional mobility of an individual
Significant weight loss can boost confidence and improve self-esteem of an individual

Disadvantages and Risks :
One of the most important features about recovery and efficacy of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is postoperative follow-up. In order to accomplish successful weight loss, adopting a healthy diet and partaking in exercise as well as following the physician’s indications is critically important. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has a lower risk of complications than a gastric bypass, but higher than a laparoscopic adjustable band.

Main complications that can occur during the procedure include bleeding, infection, injuries to the other organs, or the surgery may need to convert the procedure to an open procedure. In addition, following the surgery, there is also the risk of leak from the staple line, which is a problem that tend to occur in less than one percent of the cases.

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